Johann Sebastian Bach: Toccata and Fugue in D Minor

Johann Sebastian Bach is another one of those great composers whose music can serve as a starting point for someone interested in learning about classical music. I use the term generic term “classical” here to refer to all “serious” music, because as most of you know, Bach falls into the baroque period. Confused yet? I think I can be forgiven, because The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music lists among its definition for “classical”, “music of permanent value, not ephemeral.” The technical definition is to describe music that is concerned with form and proportion rather than emotion, and usually refers to the 18th and early 19th century. The Oxford manages to get a dig in at us hoi polloi: “Amongst less educated people, music with no ‘tune’ in it.” Those whacky Brits. How can you not love a country that gave us Shakespeare and baked beans on toast?

Baroque refers to the period of music immediately preceding classical, that is the 17th and early 18th century, usually from Germany and Austria. Baroque, from the French meaning “bizarre,” was applied to the fanciful wrought-gold and cherub adorned architecture of that time period. Bach was probably the most prolific composers (in more ways than one) of this period: he produced countless works for the organ, chorus, instruments and orchestra—-plus 23 sons. That doesn’t sound too impressive, except for the sons, but consider this, he wrote a cantata (in this case a sung mass) for every day of the year!

I usually think of music from this time period as being either stately—like Handel’s Water Music and Bach’s six Brandenburg Concertos—or meticulous like Bach’s works for solo instruments such as the harpsichord, violin, viola and of course the organ. Bach wrote a lot of organ music, having been a church organist and director of the school of the church of Saint Thomas in Leipzig.

The Toccata and Fugue in D Minor is probably one of Bach’s most famous and accessible pieces. It gets played a lot around Halloween in the U.S., because some idiot used it the soundtrack for some horror movie years ago. The opening part, the toccata, for that reason now sounds ominous and full of sturm und drang. The fugue is a form of composition that has several “voices” or melodies that start in succession, almost like a round, but then which interweave with one another according to strict rules of harmony. This is why the music to me sounds meticulous or mathematical. The modern philosopher, Douglas Hofstader, wrote a huge tome called Godell, Escher, and Bach in which he analyzes the structure of the fugue, almost ad nauseum.

Another place where the Toccata and Fugue in D Minor turns up is in Walt Disney’s film Fantasia. Leopold Stokowski orchestrated the piece and the Disney cartoonist used the technique of aurora borealis to represent the different voices of the fugue. It’s sort of boring really, and to my mind, kind of emasculates this piece.

Of course, as an adolescent, I was drawn to the toccata, but eventually I came to love the fugue as well, which is actually quite beautiful and sweet compared to the strong emotions in the toccata. In my high school French class, I met a fellow student, named John Claeys, who was a gifted artist and could play the organ by ear. One of his hobbies was collecting decorative molding from abandoned Victorian houses in our county. His basement bedroom looked like something out of a horror film itself, with its dark paneling. John had even found an old upright pump organs on one of his forays and installed this in his lair. He was able to figure out the fingering for part of the toccata and took great pleasure wheezing it out on that old organ.

John and I made a horror movie for our French class with his dad’s super eight camera. I played a crazed madman, who at one point runs out of control in my mothers black 1968 Volkwagen beetle and dirves it over a cliff. John sacrificed one of his plastic car models for the actual crash and burning of the bug. The only thing it had to do with French class were the hand-written dialog cards, which said things like sacre bleu! Of course, we used the Toccata and Fugue in D Minor for the soundtrack.

In 1972 or thereabouts, an organist named Virgil Fox, decided to adapt techniques from The Grateful Dead and give concerts with psychedelic light shows. He came to a small private college in my home town and I dragged John along to the concert with me. It was absolutely captivating.

Fox must have thought he was the reincarnation of Franz Lizst: he strode onstage wearing a black cape, which he whirled off as he sat down at his instrument. He played a huge five-manual (keyboard) organ and between pieces he would explain to the audience exactly how each piece was constructed and how complex it was. One piece, I think it was the Gigue Fugue, required him to play four melodies, one with each appendage simultaneously. The crowd—and I—went wild and after he finished he played a number of encores. After each set of applause would die down, I would stand up and scream “Play Toccata and Fugue in D Minor!” After his fourth encore, and dripping with sweat, he yelled back “OK!” Needless to say, I was transported when he played it, and though somewhat embarrassed by my behavior after all these years, I still enjoy this piece.


About kurtnemes
Writer and Education Professional. Specialties include Ethics, Personal Memoir, Classical music, Tai Chi, Stress Reduction, Meditation, Coping, Classical Music, Aging, Love, Joy, Compassion and Equanimity (& what interests me.)

8 Responses to Johann Sebastian Bach: Toccata and Fugue in D Minor

  1. Knot Telling says:

    Just like you, as a teenager I was first drawn to the Toccata (probably thanks to late night black and white movies on TV) and later to the fugue. Baroque is now my best loved musical period. As a young adult I read and loved Godell, Escher, and Bach (but then, I studied philosophy, particularly logic).

    So yeah, great post!


  2. katherine says:

    Well, for those first time listeners, I hope that they will also explore the more quiet, exquisite music that Bach wrote for piano (or in those days, the clavichord.) The Toccata and Fuge on the organ gives a completely different impression with the scale of sound, played in a huge chapel. Try also listening to the Well-Tempered Clavichord preludes and fuges, the English and French Suites, Partitas and especially, the Goldberg Variations. Kurt, hope that you will write soon about this more Yin to the Toccata and Fuge’s extreme Yang.


    • kurtnemes says:

      yin-yang. Can’t have one without the other. The one contains the other. They are not simply opposites; they’re compliments. Bach’s music reaches the sublime in just about every way. I believe Goldberg is on my list and thanks for reminding me to listen to the English and French suites, which are a huge gap in my musical knowledge.


      • katherine says:

        Do you have pianists in mind when listening to the Bach Goldberg Variations? There’s the iconic 1955 recording by Glenn Gould where the clarity (and the fast tempi) are marvelous to behold for sure. He also recorded the Goldbergs again 20 or so years later which might be an interesting contrast to listen to. More contemporary recordings are by Murray Perahia and Angela Hewitt (a Canadian as was GG,) and most recently, by Min Soo, a Korean pianist who recorded the Goldbergs last year, I think. Enjoy!–it’s very cooling listening in this heat wave weather! And thanks for letting me comment on your blog!


      • kurtnemes says:

        I am ashamed to admit I haven’t kept up with the new generation of pianists. I owned the vinyl of GG playing but my tuner broke several years ago and I haven’t spun a disk since then. My favorite performance of the GVs took place in Ghana a couple of years ago when I was there on a business trip. Walking into the small lobby of my hotel, I heard someone playing them on the baby grand in the bar area. I sat down, mesmerized–such beautiful music so far from home. When the pianist finished I talked to him and found out he was the accompanist for a soprano in town to do a concert at the US embassy. That performance nourished my soul. Thanks for commenting. All the best.


      • katherine says:

        what a poignant memory! Do you have a Mac with I-Tunes? If so, I can tell you it’s lots of fun downloading selections (partial) on it and comparing the way different artists perform the same piece. If you have a PC, you could probably try the same thing by sampling listings on Amazon. It’s amazing how this “sampling” will hone your ear to listen to new performers!


  3. LaDona's Music Studio says:

    A big appeal of so much of Bach’s music for me is the rhythmic drive – that chugga-chugga, never-say-die movement forward – usually beginning off the beat which drives it even more. It’s energising!

    An interesting comparison on Gould’s 2 performances of the Aria from the Goldberg is here:


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